1.Industrial fractionating columns
Distillation is one of the most common and energy-intensive separation processes.
The effectiveness of separation is dependent upon the height and diameter of the column,
the ratio of the column's height to diameter, and the material that comprises the distillation column itself.
In a typical chemical plant, it accounts for about 40% of the total energy consumption.
Industrial distillation is typically performed in large, vertical cylindrical columns (as shown in Figure 2) known as "distillation towers" or "distillation columns" with diameters ranging from about 65 centimeters to 6 meters and heights ranging from about 6 meters to 60 meters or more.